सा कृषि विकास उन्नति पद्धति लि.






India's agriculture is composed of many crops, with the foremost food staples being rice and wheat. Indian farmers also grow pulses, potatoes, sugarcane, oilseeds, and such non-food items as cotton, tea, coffee, rubber, and jute (a glossy fiber used to make burlap and twine). India is a fisheries giant as well. A total catch of about 3 million metric tons annually ranks India among the world's top 10 fishing nations. Despite the overwhelming size of the agricultural sector, however, yields per hectare of crops in India are generally low compared to international standards. Improper water management is another problem affecting India's agriculture. At a time of increasing water shortages and environmental crises, for example, the rice crop in India is allocated disproportionately high amounts of water. One result of the inefficient use of water is that water tables in regions of rice cultivation, such as Punjab, are on the rise, while soil fertility is on the decline. Aggravating the agricultural situation is an ongoing Asian drought and inclement weather. Although during 2000-01 a monsoon with average rainfall had been expected, prospects of agri production during that period were not considered bright. This has partially been due to relatively unfavorable distribution of rainfall, leading to floods in certain parts of the country and droughts in some others.

Despite the fact that agriculture accounts for as much as a quarter of the Indian economy and employs an estimated 60 percent of the labor force, it is considered highly inefficient, wasteful, and incapable of solving the hunger and malnutrition problems. Despite progress in this area, these problems have continued to frustrate India for decades. It is estimated that as much as one-fifth of the total agricultural output is lost due to inefficiencies in harvesting, transport, and storage of government-subsidized crops.

The Developments of Indian Agriculture after Independence     

Read this article to learn about the developments of Indian agriculture after independence!

When India became independent in 1947, the agricultural productivity was very low (about 50 million tonnes). The agriculture was mainly rained and was being done as a subsistence farming using mainly animate sources of farm power and traditional tools and equipment’s. More than 80% of the population living in rural areas was dependent on agriculture for their livelihood.

The Royal Commission on Agriculture in its report in 1928 had laid stress on harnessing science to develop and spread new agricultural technologies for the irrigated, arid and semi-arid areas. However, the quantum of efforts generated in agricultural engineering research and education till 1947 was microscopic in relation to the magnitude and diversity of the problems awaiting solutions.

The manpower for agricultural engineering research in the ICAR system was inadequate, both, qualitatively and quantitatively for facing successfully the numerous problems of developing equipment and technologies for mechanization of agriculture for maximizing efficiency of costly inputs like seeds, fertilizers, irrigation water, plant protection chemicals, and energy sources to increase higher production and productivity, reduction of drudgery; post-harvest technology and value addition, water, Plant Protection chemicals, and energy sources to increase higher production and productivity, reduction of drudgery; post-harvest technology and value addition, waste utilization, and generating income and employment in rural areas.

Research in agricultural engineering related to farm implements and machinery began at the Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Naini in 1921 with Prof. Mason Vaugh as the Research Engineer. During 1930 agricultural engineering research was started at the then Agricultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore, with Mr. Charley, a Britisher, as the first research engineer.

Efforts were then concentrated mainly to develop labour saving manual and animal drawn implements. Later, with the starting of B.Sc. Agricultural Engineering Programme at Allahabad Agricultural Institute during 1942, establishment of Agricultural Engineering Division at TART in 1947, Agricultural Engineering Department at IIT, Kharagpur in 1954, and colleges of Agricultural Engineering and Technology at Pantnagar, Ludhiana, Jabalpur, Udaipur, Coimbatore. 1960s gave an impetus to agricultural engineering research programmes.

Besides these research-cum-academic institutions, a good amount of research opportunity was opened up in the soil and water engineering with the establishment of the 1st river valley project, the Damodar Valley Corporation in 1949, to tackle the problems of soil and water conservation in Bihar and West Bengal.

This was followed by the Government of India’s initiative in establishing soil conservation centres at different regions of the country from the First Five-Year plan. Subsequently all these centres were administratively combined together as a Central Soil and Water Conservation Research Institute at Dehra Dun under the ICAR in 1975, with 6 regional centres.

More recently, organizations other than the ICAR have shown interest in sponsoring research in different areas of agricultural engineering, either by giving financial support or as integral part of the activity of these organizations. Some of these organizations are Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources; Department of Electronics; Department of Science and Technology; Department of Agriculture and Co-operation; Tata Energy Research Institute and the Indian National Committee of Irrigation and Drainage etc.

The ICAR has however remained the most important organisation in the country supporting the research in all areas of agricultural engineering and technologies, primarily through the Division of Agricultural Engineering and in some aspects also through the Division of Natural Resource Management, Crop Science and Horticulture.

Early farm machinery development in India was greatly influenced by technological developments in England. The horse drawn equipment imported from England were suitably modified to suit Indian draught animals, and thus as a result, mould board ploughs, disc harrow and cultivators were introduced in India. In 1954 the ICAR for the first time sponsored a scheme to conduct state-wise survey of the existing tools and implements used by farmers.


1. The work of improvement, development and standardization of indigenous implements should be carried out in co-ordinated manner with due regard to different soils, climatic conditions and cultural practices prevailing in various regions of the country.

2. Standardization of components of approved agricultural implements should be done to facilitate their manufacture on a mass scale, to be made available to interested farmers readily and cheaply.

3. Multi-purpose implements or tool bars with suitable attachments covering a variety of operations, similar to the bullock drawn tool carrier-cum-farm cart should be developed.

4. Research should be undertaken on animal yokes and methods of hitching with a view to improve their working efficiency.

5. Field tests of the implements developed should be conducted systematically and reported on a standard proforma.

Promising types of foreign implements should also be tried out under various soil and climatic conditions in different regions with a view to evolve successful designs.

During the sixties the ICAR made serious efforts to promote research and development improved farm implements by establishing 17 Research Training and Testing Centres (RTTCs) in each major states. These were operated by state Departments of Agriculture. During later part of sixties (Fourth Five-Year Plan) two zonal Research and Testing Centres, one at IARI New Delhi and other at TNAU, Coimbatore and 4 Research Centres at Ludhiana, Pune, Hyderabad and Mandi were established. Simultaneously during early sixties the Allahabad Agricultural Institute. Allahabad with the assistance of Ford Foundation established a centre called Development Centre for research on agricultural implements and machinery.

They also started another project on Evaluation of Power Tillers for Indian conditions. These projects yielded good results and many types of equipment were developed. During the same period, the Ford Foundation expert, in collaboration with a private manufacture in Hyderabad developed a 3 row Animal Drawn Seed-cum-Fertilizer called Swastik Drill.

This was the starting point for serious Research and Development work on seed drills and planters. During 1960 indigenous production of tractors started in India with a production of a few hundred tractors year which has now reached to a production level of more than, 2,00,000 tractors / year and India has emerged as number one tractor producing country in the world.

During sixties and seventies the indigenous production of power tillers, stationary engines, power threshers, plant protection equipment and other agricultural equipments were started and expanded to cope up with the increasing demand of improved agricultural machinery for crop production and processing.

This has resulted in establishment of a large number (about 20,000) of agricultural implements manufacturing industries in small, medium and large scale sectors. The present day investment in agricultural machinery has risen to approximately rupees 2, 50,000 million annually, which is about 10% of the total National GDP from the agricultural sector.

After independence when Five Year Development Plans were prepared in 1950, agriculture was given priority as a result of which agricultural research was also given priority. However, it was only during sixties, when a number of Agricultural Engineering Colleges were started in the country and trained manpower was made available, the research activities in the field of agricultural engineering picked up and got a boost during the last two and a half decades.

During this period, 3 ICAR Institutes namely Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering (CIAE), Bhopal Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana and National Research Centre on Women in Agriculture with a unit at CIAE Bhopal (to work on reducing drudgery of Women in Agriculture) were established and 10 All India Coordinated Research Projects and number of AP Cess funded ad-hoc schemes were initiated in the discipline of Agricultural Engineering by the ICAR, as a result of which very good work have been done, both, in quality and quantity in development of equipment and technology.

Agricultural Engineering, as defined by international institutions, comprises 4 main branches, namely (i) farm implements and power, (ii) rural structures, (iii) soil conservation, drainage and irrigation, and (iv) rural electricity.

Because of the peculiar local conditions, the lack of development of electricity in a large scale, and immediate utility of implements, agricultural engineering in India has come to mean more of agricultural implements and machinery. But in fact, agricultural engineering is a very vast subject.

And may be defined as the application of the knowledge, techniques and disciplines of various fields of engineering to the solution of problems arising in the fields of agriculture and rural living, with the object of reducing labour, improving agricultural productivity per worker, and raising the standard of living of the farmers and increasing the overall earnings per worker.

During the Second and the Third Five-Year Plans, agricultural engineering division were added to the departments of agriculture in the states and at the Centre. They undertook the work of hiring or selling tractors, oil engines, implements, pumps, etc. Several training institutions and workshops were started to train artisans and mechanics, and in every state a research-cum-testing and training centre for agricultural implements was established.

The cumulative effect of all these steps has been to popularize mechanization and to prepare a sound base for it. They came an era of more intensive planning and reorganization on a wider scale. With the establishment of agricultural universities, several agricultural engineering colleges were established, offering graduate and postgraduate courses.

In most of the states, where such colleges were established, they took over research, education and extension from the state departments of agriculture. The most important step in the reorganization has been the establishment of agro-industries corporations, one in each state, with the financial assistance of the Central Ministry of Agriculture.

The main objective of establishing these corporations have been to take over the supply and service functions of the departments of agriculture and to expand them. These agro-industries corporations have each a paid-up capital of 20 to 50 millions of rupees. They have taken over the existing government workshops also.

The other most important development has been in the field of industry which has established so far half a dozen factories for manufacturing tractors, 3 or 4 for manufacturing power-tillers and several other factories for sets. Some of these industries are being substantially assisted by the Industrial Finance Corporation of India.

The Government has also established a factory for manufacturing crawler tractors and another one for manufacturing wheel-type tractors. These three main developments helped to quicken the pace of mechanization of Indian agriculture.

The private industries as well as the government, through their agro-industries corporations, are in the field now for the supply of agricultural machinery to the farmers. To present the charging of exorbitant prices for tractors the government has fixed the maximum prices of tractors with the assistance of the Bureau of Cost Accounting in the Ministry of Finance. This organisation has helped the farmers a lot.

Agricultural electronics has also begun and the remote-control tractors are being designed and tested in some countries. Japan has successfully designed machines for transplanting paddy seedling and their trials are going on at the Tractor-Training and Testing Centre at Budni. A very ambitious programme for joining the Ganga with the Kauveri, via the Mahanadi, the Narmada, the Godavari and the Krishna, is under the consideration of the Central Government and some preliminary work is being carried on.

With the successful explosion of an atomic device, India may be in a position to generate more electricity in future. The availability of plentiful irrigation water as a result of the Ganga-Kauveri Project, and the availability of more electricity from atomic energy will make the progress of farm mechanization in India speedier.

To achieve this objective effectively, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research has now established one research cum-testing and training centre in each state. Some of them have now been converted into regional centres or have been taken over by the state governments.

The object is to improve the indigenous agricultural implements, to design new implements and to test them in the field up to the prototype level. After the implements have proved to be useful, the prototypes can be given to the manufacturers both in the public as well as in the private sectors and the implements can then be sold through them to the farmers.